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Research Achievements 2019-20
- A. Genetic Resources
- B.Crop improvement
- C. Biotechnology
- D. Seed Science
- E. Crop Health
- F. Crop production
- F1. Crop Physiology
- G. Bio-chemistry
- H. Value Addition
- I. Extension
- J. Training & Capacity Building
- K. Awards
- L. Publications
A. Genetic Resources
- • A medium maturing hybrid, 1194A x CB33 recorded 20% grain yield advantage over CSH25, and one early hybrid, 372A x CB33 recorded 28% higher grain yield over CSH30.
- • Under rice-fallow sorghum, RFSH1 and RFSH5 sorghum hybrids wit 9-10 q/ha grain yield were most preferred by the farmers.
- • GMN 16-4 was consistently good with panicle grain mold score (3.2) on par with the resistant line, B58586.
- • Two promising sweet sorghum derivatives, SPV2595 (27A of sorghum × CM211 of maize) and SPV2596 (MR750 of sorghum × CM208 of maize) were found suitable forjuice brix, total soluble sugars and computed ethanol yield.
- • The variety (RSCN2103 x SSV84)-2-1-3-1-1-1-2 recorded the highest fresh biomass yield of 70 t/ha and was 17% superior to the best check CSV19SS (60 t/ha). Entry (SPV1871 x SSV74)-5-2-1-1-1-1 recorded the highest ethanol yields of 1599 L ha-1 and was 36% superior to the best check CSV24SS (11179 L ha-1)
- • QTL were identified for deadhearts (4), eggs per plant (4) and seedling leaf surface glossiness (3) using sorghum minicore set.
- • Marker-assisted backcross progenies of CRS4 and RSLG262 were found superior for physiological traits over recurrent parents.
- • CMS SL19B and males SLR 13, SLR 24 and SLR 30 were good general combiners for grain yield and the female SL 12B and male SLR 10 and SLR 27 were good general combiners for earliness.
- • Twenty-four double cross hybrids were developed for broadening the genetic base of rabi sorghum.
- • Rabi sorghum genotypes CRS-75, and CRS-77 were found to be highly adaptableover varied soil depths.
- • Genotype IC 392156, IC 392155 and (E228 x IC 392156) were found resistant to charocaol rot disease.
- • Promising selections, 4738-2, 4786-2, 44793 and 4722 for grain iron and zinc content were made.
- • DUS trials of sorghum as per the PPV&FR Authority test guidelines were conducted.
B. Crop improvement
- Hybrid 97111A x R4 exhibited 40.4% higher grain yield and 54.7% higher fodder yield over the best check RHB 173
- For summer cultivation, hybrid 89111A x R48 (grain yield of 4.99 t/ha)recorded 33.5% superior to the best check 86M86.
- The perl millet parental lines 04999B and 07999R had low rancidity, and are ueful in breeding for increased shelf-life of pearl millet.
- Inbreds, ICMX 1410852-2, ICMP 100230, ICMR 100591, ICMX 1410852-3 and ICMB 101724 showed better RWC value and root traits.
Little millet • IC0483220, IC0483429, GPMR1153-2 were early maturing.
- • Seven genotypes (KempuNavane, ELS 43, CB-GS-747/1, ERP 82, HaaluNavane, ERP 40 and ESD 42) recorded grain yield advantage of 6-45% over the best check, SiA 326.
- • Accessions GS1500, GS495, GS498, GS372, GS164, GS763 and GS760 were high yielding, while GS2026, GS1308 and GS495 had bold seeds.
- • For rust GS317, GS40, GS432, GS453, GS495 and GS760 exhibited highly resistant reaction
- • Pollen sterility was increased with increasing irradiation dose but the spikelet fertility was not affected much. Increase in pollen sterility ranged from 5-12% in RKS390-25, and 4 -19% in TNAU86.
- • Complete chaffy panicles were observed at 50oC of hot water treatment for 3 and 5 min.
• Two entries selected from germplasm lines (IIMR-118 and IIMR-1) were found superior in the yield trials over checks millet
• Stay-green trait, early ground cover, chlorophyll retention at later stages are contributing greatly to tolerance under moisture stress.
Brown top millet
• Wide variability was obderved among 32 germplasm lines of brown top millet
- • Variations in quality traits, protein content (8.31-16.06 %), starch content (46.43-97.25%) and amylase content (1.49-21.91 %) was observed in association mapping panel.
- • 158 SSR-enriched fragments comprising of 83 of little millet and 75 of kodo millet were isolated using the modified SSR-enrichment protocol.
- • Marker-assisted incorporation of brown midrib genes, bmr2, bmr6, bmr12, into CSV20 and CSV27 is in advanced stage.
- • Six mutants (M27-4-1-25-896, M27-4-3-13-110, M27-4-3-13-112, M27-4-3-16-168, M27-23-2-13-1103, M27-32-1-6-496) showed improvement over control (PEC17) in the range of 2-13% for plant height, 1-6% for panicle length, 22-47% for grain yield, 14-28% for stover yield and 2-18% in grain as well as in stover yield in the range of 7-42% for 100-seed weight.
- • Pearl millet lines, 07444R, 07222R and R35 showed better lipid stability and hence better response to high temperature stress. For lipid peroxidation, 89111B was most affected by heat stress. Ascorbate peroxidase, was most active in 04999B and 99222B.
D. Seed Science
E. Crop Health
Disease management• Blast pathogen Pyriculariagrisea infect finger millet either on the spike or finger at flowering stage.Accession GE140, 147, 168 and 416 showed least reduction of grain size due to finger blast. • Investigationon charcoal rot in rabi sorghum, clearly revealed that Macrophominaphaseolina isolate causing seedling blight is the same causing charcoal rot at maturity
• In rabi sorghum, mancozeb seed treatment resulted in 58.45% control of CR incidence followed by elemental Sulphur (53.25%), soil application of Neem cake @ 1t/ha (49.46%), Sulphur 80% WP (48.38%) and Trichoderma viride (45.18%).
• With soil application of bleaching powder,there was significant reduction (75%) in seedling blight in rabi sorghum.
- Insect management
• In barnyard millet, seed treatment with Thiomethoxam @25WDG @ 4 g / kg seed significantly reduced shoot fly incidence (23.67%) as compared to control plot (39.48%). Yield levels in treated plot was higher (18.06 q ha-1) than in untreated plot (11.52 q ha-1).
• Larval parasitoid wasp, Neotrichoporoides nyemitawus (Rohwer) was the most predominant species found on several Atherigona spp. Two other species N. beonus and N. viridimaculatuswere also found parasitizing on Atherigona spp. in millets.
• The rabi sorghum cultivars, CSV14R, CSV216R, Solapur dagadi, CSH15R, CSV18 and CSV22 were found moderately resistant for the shoot bug.
• The treatment of application of carbofuran 3G granules @ 20 kg/ha was the best to control pink borer of finger millet.
F. Crop production• Refined APSIM setup with gridded NASA data could be successfully used to simulate the yields of rabi sorghum across different parts of India
F1. Crop Physiology
• Phenotyping kharif sorghum genotypes (inbreds, hybrids, and parents) for physiological basis of genetic gain in yield potential indicated that older cultivars SPV 462 and CSV 20 maintain higher LAI and LAD than others. LAI & LAD has showed significant positive relationship with SLA, total biomass, while its relationship with SLW was negative.
• Specific leaf weight (SLW) at flowering had shown significant positive relationship (P≤0.05) with biomass, grains/m2 and grain yield.
• High biomass GS3, LAD and sink number needs to be incorporated in new parental lines for enhancing yield potential.
• Per day grain productivity, biomass in GS3 stage, SLW, LAD and HI are the simple criteria to select higher yielding kharif sorghum genotypes from segregating populations.
• The highest mean starch content of 66.46 g 100g−1 was observed in kodo millet, while lowest starch content of 58.9 g 100g−1 was found in barnyard millet.
• The mean fat contents of kodo and proso millet were lower and foxtail millet was noted as higher than other small millets investigated.
• Foxtail millet has higher zinc content and lower in Kodo millet. Barnyard millet shows higher content of calcium and lower is noted in Proso millet. Little millet shows higher concentration of magnesium while barnyard millet shows low concentration of magnesium.
• keeping ragi pizza base at room temperature for 3 days and for 6 days at chilling temperature was found safe for consumption
• A non-dairy plant-based yoghurt which was lactose free was developed from sorghum and soya milk.
• The demonstrated Kharifsorghum cultivars gave 62% more grain yield and 39% stover yield over the local check across the locations. The demonstrated cultivars gave net returns of Rs. 41,240/- per ha on the cost of Rs. 21,093/- per ha, which is 72% higher than to the local checks (Rs. 23,986/- per ha).
• The demonstrated rabi sorghum varieties gave 48% higher grain and 42% fodder yields than the local checks. On an average, the demonstrated varieties could earn net returns of Rs. 43,029/- on the cost of Rs. 23,010/- per ha, which is 61% higher than the local checks.
• Several training and workshops were organized by the Institute for the benefit of various stakeholders from across the country including digital field book, statistical data analysis, students research.